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  • 677 For Viral Reservoir Studies, Timing Matters
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2019.08.003, New strategies to eliminate persistent HIV-1 during therapy will benefit from animal models, such as non-human primates infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) or chimeras (SHIV). Understanding the genetic composition of SIV and SHIV reservoirs during ther... [Bethany A. Horsburgh, Sarah Pa]
  • 676 Imaging the Hepatitis B Virus: Broadcasting Live
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2019.07.007, Although important breakthroughs in our understanding of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) life cycle have been made since the discovery of its main entry factor, the spatiotemporal dynamics of HBV–host interactions remains understudied. Here, we discuss recent advances a... [Maika S. Deffieu, Raphael Gaud]
  • 675 How BspC from Streptococcus agalactiae Interacts with Host Vimentin during Meningitis
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2019.07.001, Streptococcus agalactiae meningitis is a frequent neonatal disease associated with high mortality and permanent neurological damage. Deng et al. (PLoS Pathog., 2019) now show that interactions between the bacterial protein BspC and host cell vimentin participate in th... [Concetta Beninati, Agata Famà,]
  • 674 Making the Most of Trait-Based Approaches for Microbial Ecology
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2019.06.003, There is an increasing interest in applying trait-based approaches to microbial ecology, but the question of how and why to do it is still lagging behind. By anchoring our discussion of these questions in a framework derived from epistemology, we broaden the scope of ... [Geneviève Lajoie, Steven W. Ke]
  • 673 Bystander Selection for Antimicrobial Resistance: Implications for Patient Health
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2019.06.004, Antimicrobial therapy promotes resistance emergence in target infections and in off-target microbiota. Off-target resistance emergence threatens patient health when off-target populations are a source of future infections, as they are for many important drug-resistant... [Valerie J. Morley, Robert J. W]
  • 672 Fluidic Force Microscopy Captures Amyloid Bonds between Microbial Cells
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2019.06.001, Fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM) is a recent force-controlled pipette technology that enables manipulation of single cells. FluidFM can be used for quantification of forces between single cells, and a novel mode of cell–cell adhesion was uncovered: amyloid-like in... [Jérôme Dehullu, Julia A. Vorho]
  • 671 Molecular Mechanism of HIV-1 Entry
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2019.06.002, HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein [Env; trimeric (gp160)3 cleaved to (gp120/gp41)3] attaches the virion to a susceptible cell and induces fusion of viral and cell membranes to initiate infection. It interacts with the primary receptor CD4 and coreceptor (e.g., chemokine rec... [Bing Chen]
  • 670 Currency, Exchange, and Inheritance in the Evolution of Symbiosis
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2019.05.010, Symbiotic interactions between eukaryotes and prokaryotes are widespread in nature. Here we offer a conceptual framework to study the evolutionary origins and ecological circumstances of species in beneficial symbiosis. We posit that mutual symbiotic interactions are ... [Tanita Wein, Devani Romero Pic]
  • 669 RNA-Targeted Antiviral Immunity: More Than Just RNA Silencing
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2019.05.007, RNA silencing is a fundamental, evolutionarily conserved mechanism that regulates gene expression in eukaryotes. It also functions as a primary immune defense in microbes, such as viruses in plants. In addition to RNA silencing, RNA decay and RNA quality-control pathw... [Fangfang Li, Aiming Wang]
  • 668 Antimicrobial Tolerance and Metabolic Adaptations in Microbial Biofilms
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2019.05.003, Active bacterial metabolism is a prerequisite for optimal activity of many classes of antibiotics. Hence, bacteria have developed strategies to reduce or modulate metabolic pathways to become tolerant. This review describes the tight relationship between metabolism an... [Aurélie Crabbé, Peter Østrup J]